GRADE 8 SCIENCE

» SCOPE and SEQUENCE «

FALL Semester

TIME: All Year
Benchmark:/Performance Indictor—TEKS or TAKS Objective:

Demonstrate that by safely performing investigations, certain questions can be answered, and conclusions and models built from these investigations change as new observations are made.

TEKS 8.1 Scientific processes. The student conducts field and laboratory investigations using safe, environmentally appropriate, and ethical practices. The student is expected to:

(A)  demonstrate safe practices during field and laboratory investigations; and

(B)  make wise choices in the use and conservation of resources and the disposal or recycling of materials.

TIME: All Year
Benchmark:/Performance Indictor—TEKS or TAKS Objective:

Use critical and logical thinking to describe objects and events, ask questions, construct explanations, test those explanations against current scientific knowledge, and communicate ideas to others.

TEKS 8.2  Scientific processes. The student uses scientific inquiry methods during field and laboratory investigations. The student is expected to:

(A)  plan and implement investigative procedures including asking questions, formulating testable hypotheses, and selecting and using equipment and technology;

(B)  collect data by observing and measuring;

(C)  organize, analyze, evaluate, make inferences, and predict trends from direct and indirect evidence;

(D)  communicate valid conclusions; and

(E)  construct graphs, tables, maps, and charts using tools including computers to organize, examine, and evaluate data.

TIME: All Year
Benchmark:/Performance Indictor—TEKS or TAKS Objective:

Use reasoning skills to collect and analyze factual data, consider alternative explanations, and express positions that are scientifically and technologically informed.

TEKS 8.3 Scientific processes. The student uses critical thinking and scientific problem solving to make informed decisions. The student is expected to:

(A)  analyze, review, and critique scientific explanations, including hypotheses and theories, as to their strengths and weaknesses using scientific evidence and information;

(B)  draw inferences based on data related to promotional materials for products and services;

(C)  represent the natural world using models and identify their limitations;

(D)  evaluate the impact of research on scientific thought, society, and the environment; and

(E)  connect Grade 8 science concepts with the history of science and contributions of scientists.

TIME: All Year
Benchmark:/Performance Indictor—TEKS or TAKS Objective:

Use existing age appropriate tools to observe, collect, and measure scientific data and recognize the impact of technology on the environment and society.

TEKS 8.4 Scientific processes. The student knows how to use a variety of tools and methods to conduct science inquiry. The student is expected to:

(A)  collect, record, and analyze information using tools including beakers, petri dishes, meter sticks, graduated cylinders, weather instruments, hot plates, dissecting equipment, test tubes, safety goggles, spring scales, balances, microscopes, telescopes, thermometers, calculators, field equipment, computers, computer probes, water test kits, and timing devices; and

    1. extrapolate from collected information to make predictions.

Technology TEKS

C. Demonstrate knowledge and use of operating systems, applications, communications, and networking components. (TEKS 126.12c 1A)

D. Make necessary adjustments for file formats and cross platform connectivity. (TEKS 126.12c 1D)

E. Explain the difference between analog and digital technology. (TEKS 126.12c 1G)

F. Compare and contrast WAN, LAN, Internet, & Intranet. (TEKS 126.12c 1I)

G. Use productivity tools to create effective document files for defined audiences, such as slide shows, posters, multimedia presentations, newsletters, brochures. (TEKS 126.12c 10A)

TIME: All Year
Benchmark:/Performance Indictor—TEKS or TAKS Objective:

TEKS 8.5 Scientific processes. The student knows that relationships exist between science and technology. The student is expected to:

(A)  identify a design problem and propose a solution;

(B)  design and test a model to solve the problem; and

(C)  evaluate the model and make recommendations for improving the model.


PATTERNS AND PROPERTIES

Identify properties of objects and events to recognize that patterns exist.

TIME: First Six Weeks # PERIODS: 2 90-minute classes
Benchmark:/Performance Indictor—TEKS or TAKS Objective:

TEKS 8.8 The student knows that matter is composed of atoms. The student is expected to:

8.8(A) Describe the structure and parts of the atom;

8.8(B) identify the properties of an atom including mass & electrical charge.

Topics to Cover: Know that matter is composed of atoms and describe the structure and parts of atoms. (TEKS 8.8A)

1. nucleus: proton (+), neutron, electron (-)

2. atomic number

3. atomic mass

Notes:

 

TIME: First Six Weeks # PERIODS: 2 90-minute classes
Benchmark:/Performance Indictor—TEKS or TAKS Objective:

TEKS 8.9 The student knows that substances have physical and chemical properties. The student is expected to:

8.9(B) interpret information on the periodic table to understand that physical properties are used to group elements;

Topics to Cover: Interpret information on the periodic table to understand that physical properties are used to group elements. (TEKS 8.9B)

  1. Period – describe periods as a row of elements with increasing atomic numbers.
  2. Family—describe the similar physical properties within these families of elements:
    1. Alkali metals
    2. Noble gases
    3. Halogens
Notes:

 

TIME: First Six Weeks # PERIODS: 2 90-minute classes
Benchmark:/Performance Indictor—TEKS or TAKS Objective:

TEKS 8.9 The student knows that substances have physical and chemical properties. The student is expected to:

8.9(A) demonstrate that substances may react chemically to form new substances.

8.9(C) recognize the importance of formulas and equations to express what happens in a chemical reaction;

TAKS IPC 7 The student knows relationships exist between properties of matter and its components. The student is expected to:

IPC 7(E) classify samples of matter from everyday life as being elements, compounds, or mixtures.

Topics to Cover: Demonstrate that substances may react chemically to form new substances. (TEKS 8.9C)

1. mixtures vs. compounds (TEKS IPC 7E)

2. experience and describe chemical reactions (TEKS 8.9C)

3. reactant (TEKS 8.9C)

4. product (TEKS 8.9C)

5. bonding (simple covalent, ionic) (TEKS 8.9A)

6. molecules (TEKS 8.9A)

7. identify elements, compounds, & mixtures (TAKS IPC 7E)

Notes: TAKS IPC 7(E) is to be taught for PreAP classes only as they will not have IPC in 9th grade.

 

TIME: First Six Weeks # PERIODS: 1 90-minute class
Benchmark:/Performance Indictor—TEKS or TAKS Objective:

TEKS 8.10 The student knows that complex interactions occur between matter and energy. The student is expected to:

8.10(C) identify and demonstrate that loss or gain of heat energy occurs during exothermic and endothermic chemical reactions.

Topics to Cover: Identify and demonstrate that loss or gain of heat energy occurs during exothermic and endothermic chemical reactions. (TEKS 8.10C)

  1. exothermic
  2. endothermic
Notes:

 

TIME: First Six Weeks # PERIODS: 2 90-minute classes
Benchmark:/Performance Indictor—TEKS or TAKS Objective:

TEKS 8.9 The student knows that substances have physical and chemical properties. The student is expected to:

8.9(C) recognize the importance of formulas and equations to express what happens in a chemical reaction;

TAKS IPC 8 The student knows that changes in matter affect everyday life. The student is expected to:

IPC 8(C) investigate and identify the law of conservation of mass.

Topics to Cover: Recognize the importance of formulas and equations to express what happens in a chemical reaction (TEKS 8.9C)

  1. chemical equation i.e., formula (atom counts)
  2. introduce the concept of the Law of Conservation of Mass (TAKS IPC 8C)
  3. introduce the concept of the Law of Conversation of Energy (TAKS IPC 8C)
  4. balance simple equations (TAKS IPC 8C)
    1. photosynthesis (6H20 + 6CO2 ŕ C6H12O6 + 6O2)
    2. respiration – combustion (C6H12O6 + 6O2 ŕ 6H2O + 6CO2)
    3. water production (O2 + 2H2) ŕ 2H20)
    4. salt formation (NaOH + HCl ŕ NaCl + H2O)
Notes: TAKS IPC 8(C) is to be taught for PreAP classes only as they will not have IPC in 9th grade.
TIME: First Six Weeks # PERIODS: 4 90-minute classes
Benchmark:/Performance Indictor—TEKS or TAKS Objective:

TEKS 8.9 Science concepts. The student knows that matter is composed of atoms. The student is expected to:

8.9(B)  identify the properties of an atom including mass and electrical charge.

TEKS 8.12 The student knows that cycles exist in Earth systems. The student is expected to:

8.12(A) analyze and predict the sequence of events in the lunar and rock cycles

TAKS IPC 7 The student knows relationships exist between properties of matter and its components. The student is expected to

IPC 7(A) investigate and identify properties of fluids including density, viscosity, and Buoyancy.

Topics to Cover: The student classifies matter according to the properties associated with its molecular structure. (TEKS 8.9B & 8.12A)

  1. metals vs. nonmetals
  2. characteristics of a mineral
    1. naturally occurring
    2. inorganic
    3. definite chemical composition
    4. crystal structure
    5. solid
    1. identify and test for the properties used to identify minerals
    1. color
    2. luster
    3. hardness
    4. streak
    5. cleavage/ fracture
    6. density/ specific gravity (TAKS IPC 7A)
    7. special properties (ex. Reaction to HCl)
  1. introduce and use a dichotomous key for the identification of unknown minerals

Notes: TAKS IPC 7(A) is to be reinforced to a higher level for PreAP classes only as they will not have IPC in 9th grade. It is not expected that students identify unknowns.

TIME: First Six Weeks-Second Six Weeks # PERIODS: 2 90-minute classes
Benchmark:/Performance Indictor—TEKS or TAKS Objective:

TEKSS 8.12 The student knows that cycles exist in Earth systems. The student is expected to:

8.12 (A) analyze and predict the sequence of events in the lunar and rock cycles

TAKS IPC 8 The student knows that changes in matter affect everyday life. The student is expected to:

IPC 8(A) distinguish between physical and chemical changes in matter such as oxidation, digestion, changes in states, and stages in the rock cycle;

Topics to Cover: Analyze and predict the sequence of events in the rock cycle. (TEKSS 8.12A)
  1. Describe the formation of igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks including
    1. Igneous (intrusive/extrusive)
    2. Sedimentary (clastic/chemical/organic)
    3. Metamorphic (foliated/unfoliated)

Notes: TAKS IPC8(A) is to be reinforced to a higher level for PreAP classes only as they will not have IPC in 9th grade. It is not expected that students identify unknowns.


ENERGY

Analyze forms of energy and their flow through living and non-living systems.

TIME: Second Six Weeks # PERIODS: 1.5 90-minute classes
Benchmark:/Performance Indictor—TEKS or TAKS Objective:

TEKS 8.9 Science concepts. The student knows that substances have chemical and physical properties. The student is expected to:

8.9(D) identify that physical and chemical properties influence the development and application of everyday materials such as cooking surfaces, insulation, adhesives, and plastics.

TAKS IPC 6 The student knows the impact of energy transformations in everyday life. The student is expected to:

IPC 6(F) investigate and compare series and parallel circuits.

Topics to Cover: The student knows that substances have chemical and physical properties. (TEKS 8.9)
  1. Conductors vs. Insulators
    1. metals
    2. non-metals
    3. plastics
  2. Polymers
  3. Open/closed circuits (TAKS IPC 6F)
  4. Series/Parallel circuits (TAKS IPC 6F)
Notes: TAKS IPC 6F is to be taught for PreAP classes only as they will not have IPC in 9th grade.
TIME: Second Six Weeks # PERIODS: 1.5 90-minute classes
Benchmark:/Performance Indictor—TEKS or TAKS Objective:

TEKS 8.10 The student knows that complex interactions occur between matter and energy. The student is expected to:

8.10(A) illustrate interactions between matter and energy including specific heat.

TAKS IPC 6 The student knows the impact of energy transformations in everyday life. The student is expected to:

IPC (6)B investigate and demonstrate the movement of heat through solids, liquids, and gases by convection, conduction, and radiation.

Topics to Cover: The student recognizes complex interactions between matter and energy. (TEKS 8.10A)

  1. Non-living (Abiotic)
    1. conduction
    2. convection
    3. radiation
    4. specific heat

Notes: TAKS IPC 6(B) is to be reinforced to a higher level for PreAP classes only as they will not have IPC in 9th grade.

TIME: Second Six Weeks # PERIODS: 3 90-minute classes
Benchmark:/Performance Indictor—TEKS or TAKS Objective:

TEKS 8.6  Science concepts. The student knows that interdependence occurs among living systems. The student is expected to:

8.6(C) describe interactions within ecosystems.

TEKS 8.12 Science concepts. The student knows that cycles exist in Earth systems. The student is expected to:

8.12(C) predict the results of modifying the Earth's nitrogen, water, and carbon cycles.

TAKS IPC 6 The student knows the impact of energy transformations in everyday life. The student is expected to:

IPC 6(A) describe the law of conservation of energy.

Topics to Cover: The student knows that cycles exist in Earth systems. (TEKS 8.12C)
  1. water cycle
  2. nitrogen cycle
  3. carbon-oxygen cycle

Determine chemical and physical interactions in an ecosystem. (TEKS 8.6C)

  1. test water for dissolved oxygen
  2. analyze soil samples
  3. measure evaporation in plants
  4. conduct population studies

Review Law of conservation of Energy (TAKS IPC 6A)

Notes: As much as possible, conduct investigations within school grounds, bringing in only water samples if needed. TAKS IPC 6(A) is to be taught to PreAP classes only as they will not have IPC in 9th grade.

TIME: Second Six Weeks # PERIODS: 2 90-minute classes
Benchmark:/Performance Indictor—TEKS or TAKS Objective:

TEKS 8.6  Science concepts. The student knows that interdependence occurs among living systems. The student is expected to:

8.6(C) describe interactions within ecosystems.

TEKS 8.12 Science concepts. The student knows that cycles exist in Earth systems. The student is expected to:

8.12(C) predict the results of modifying the Earth's nitrogen, water, and carbon cycles.

TEKS 8.14 Science concepts. The student knows that natural events and human activities can alter Earth systems. The student is expected to:

8.14(C) describe how human activities have modified soil, water, and air quality.

Topics to Cover: Describe how natural events and human activities can alter earth systems. (TEKS 8.6C; 8.14C)

  1. research sources and effects of pollution
    1. air
    2. land/soil
    3. water
  2. relate to cycles & testing discussed/performed in last lesson.
Notes:


CHANGE AND CONSTANCY

Explain that much of science deals with creating and controlling change in nature as well as dealing with constancy.

TIME: Second Six Weeks # PERIODS: 5 90-minute classes
Benchmark:/Performance Indictor—TEKS or TAKS Objective:

TEKS 8.6 The student knows that interdependence occurs among living systems. The student is expected to:

8.6(A) describe interactions among systems in the human organism;

8.6(B) identify feedback mechanisms that maintain equilibrium of systems such as body temperature, turgor pressure, and chemical reactions

Topics to Cover: Identify feedback mechanisms that maintain equilibrium of systems such as body temperature, turgor pressure, and chemical reactions. (TEKS 8.6B)

  1. during exercise explore how the following mechanisms return to equilibrium:
    1. body temperature (heat produced during work/ cool down period)
    2. turgor pressure (water loss from sweating /drinking water to replace)
    3. chemical reaction (lactic acid buildup / glycogen has to build back-up)

Identify and describe how various human systems interact with each other. (TEKS 8.6A)

  1. Explain how systems work together:
    1. circulatory-respiratory
    2. skeletal-musculatory
    3. nervous-musculatory
    4. digestive-circulatory
Notes:
TIME: Third Six Weeks # PERIODS: 3 90-minute classes
Benchmark:/Performance Indictor—TEKS or TAKS Objective:

TEKS 8.11 The student knows that traits of species can change through generations and that the instructions for traits are contained in the genetic material of the organisms. The student is expected to:

8.11(C) make predictions about possible outcomes of various genetic combinations of inherited characteristics.

Topics to Cover: Identify the steps involved producing reproductive cells and make predictions about possible outcomes of various genetic combinations of inherited characteristics. (TEKS 8.11C)

  1. Introduce the meiotic process that results in egg and sperm cells & relate to mitosis.
  2. Explore possible genetic combinations using Punnett Sqaures.
    1. single gene cross: homozygous dominant, homozygous recessive, and heterozygous;
    2. two gene crosses with a variety of dominant/recessive combinations;
  3. Determine simple phenotype and genotype rations of 1 and 2 gene crosses.
Notes:
TIME: Third Six Weeks # PERIODS: 3 90-minute classes
Benchmark:/Performance Indictor—TEKS or TAKS Objective:

TEKS 8.11 The student knows that traits of species can change through generations and that the instructions for traits are contained in the genetic material of the organisms. The student is expected to:

8.11(A) Identify that change in environmental conditions can affect the survival of individuals and of species;

8.11(B) Distinguish between inherited traits and other characteristics that result from interactions with the environment;

8.11(C) Make predictions about possible outcomes of various genetic combinations of inherited characteristics.

Topics to Cover: Determine the interactions between genetics and the environment that may affect an organisms survival. (TEKS 8.11A/B)

  1. Investigate the causes and effects of mutations:
    1. harmful mutations
    2. helpful mutations
    3. mutagens
  2. Make a table illustrating inherited traits of an organism n one column. In another column, describe how the trait might be impacted by environmental conditions.
Notes:
TIME: Third Six Weeks # PERIODS: 2 90-minute classes
Benchmark:/Performance Indictor—TEKS or TAKS Objective:

TEKS 8.11 The student knows that traits of species can change through generations and that the instructions for traits are contained in the genetic material of the organisms. The student is expected to:

8.11(A) identify that change in environmental conditions can affect the survival of individuals and of species.

Topics to Cover: Explain the theory of natural selection and how adaptations help organisms to survive. (TEKS 8.11A)

  1. Describe the theory of natural selection;
  2. Identify adaptations that enable organisms to survive in the habitat in which they live.

Notes: SNAPSHOT 8.11A—Read The Lorax by Dr. Seuss. Identify changes that have occurred in home or school environments and identify how these changes have impacted the survival of a selected species.

TIME: Third Six Weeks # PERIODS: 3 90-minute classes
Benchmark:/Performance Indictor—TEKS or TAKS Objective:

TEKS 8.14 The student knows that natural events and human activity can alter earth systems. The student is expected to:

8.14(B) analyze how natural or human events may have contributed to the extinction of some species.

Topics to Cover: The student knows that traits of species can change through generations and that the instructions are contained in the genetic material of the organism. (TEKS 8.14B)

  1. Describe the evidence of change in the geological, physical, and biological events throughout the earth’s history using the geological time scale. (TEKS 8.14B)
    1. Structure of scale
    2. Changes in life
    3. Physical and human changes
  2. Natural Events
    1. Ice ages
    2. Asteroids
    3. Continental drift
  3. Human Events
    1. pollution
    2. over hunting
    3. habitat destruction


2nd Semester

CHANGE AND CONSTANCY (continued)

Explain that much of science deals with creating and controlling change in nature as well as dealing with constancy.

TIME: Fourth Six Weeks # PERIODS: 7 90-minute classes
Benchmark:/Performance Indictor—TEKS or TAKS Objective:

TEKS 8.14 The student knows that natural events and human activity can alter earth systems. The student is expected to:

8.14(A) predict land features resulting from gradual changes such as mountain building, beach erosion, land subsidence, and continental drift.

Topics to Cover: Examine the evidence that supports the theories of continental drift, sea-floor spreading, and plate tectonics. (TEKS 8.14A)

  1. Continental Drift
    1. Alfred Wagener
    2. Fossil evidence
    3. Rock evidence
  2. Sea-floor spreading
    1. mid-ocean ridges
    2. alternating magnetic directions in rock
  3. Plate tectonics
    1. convergence vs. divergence
    2. subduction and trenches
    3. hotspots and island arcs
  4. Mountain building
    1. volcanic mountains
    2. folded mountains
    3. fault-block mountains
Notes:
TIME: Fourth Six Weeks # PERIODS: 5 90-minuite classes
Benchmark:/Performance Indictor—TEKS or TAKS Objective:

TEKS 8.4 Scientific processes. The student knows how to use a variety of tools and methods to conduct science inquiry. The student is expected to:

8.4(A)  collect, record, and analyze information using tools including beakers, petri dishes, meter sticks, graduated cylinders, weather instruments, hot plates, dissecting equipment, test tubes, safety goggles, spring scales, balances, microscopes, telescopes, thermometers, calculators, field equipment, computers, computer probes, water test kits, and timing devices; and

8.4(B) extrapolate from collected information to make predictions.

TEKS 8.7  Science concepts. The student knows that there is a relationship between force and motion. The student is expected to:

8.7(B)  recognize that waves are generated and can travel through different media.

TAKS IPC 5 The student knows the effects of waves on everyday life. The student is expected to

IPC 5(A) demonstrate wave types and their characteristics through a variety of activities such as modeling with ropes and coils, activating tuning forks, and interpreting data on seismic waves.

Topics to Cover: Identify waves associated with plate tectonics, sound, and the oceans. (TEKS 8.7B)
  1. Simulate seismic waves
    1. compression, tension, shearing
    2. p, s, l, waves
    3. tsunamis
  1. Measurement of waves
    1. seismograph
    2. Richter scale
  2. Calculate Epicenter Location using triangulation.
  3. Identify ocean wave formation and their effects
    1. tsunamis
    2. beach erosion

5. Examine sound waves as they travel through different media (TAKS IPC 5A)

Notes: TAKS IPC 5(A) is to be taught for PreAP classes only as they will not have IPC in 9th grade.
TIME: Fourth-Fifth Six Weeks # PERIODS: 6 90-minute classes
Benchmark:/Performance Indictor—TEKS or TAKS Objective:

TEKS 8.7  Science concepts. The student knows that there is a relationship between force and motion. The student is expected to:

8.7(A) demonstrate how unbalanced forces cause changes in the speed or direction of an object's motion; and

8.7(B)  recognize that waves are generated and can travel through different media.

TAKS IPC 4 The student knows concepts of force and motion evident in everyday life. The student is expected to

IPC 4A calculate speed, momentum, acceleration, work, and power in systems such as in the human body, moving toys, and machines; and

IPC 4B investigate and describe [applications of] Newton’s laws such as in vehicle restraints, sports activities, geological processes, and satellite orbits.

Topics to Cover: Demonstrate how (using Newton’s 2nd and 3rd Laws of Motion), unbalanced forces cause changes in the speed or direction of an object’s motion. (TEKS 8.7A)

    1. Frame of reference
    2. Second Law of Motion (focus heavily on this) (TAKS IPC4A)
    3. Third law of Motion
    4. Speed, velocity, direction (TAKS IPC4A)
    5. frictional forces
    1. inertia
    2. change in direction
    3. stopping, rolling, and sliding
    4. air resistance
    1. Balanced and unbalanced force
    1. centripetal forces TAKS IPC 4 (PreAP Only)
    2. gravitational force TAKS IPC 4 (PreAP Only)

Notes: TAKS IPC 4A, focus on the use of formulas such as F=ma to do calculations for PreAP classes only as they will not have IPC in 9th grade.


 

SYSTEMS AND CYCLES

Investigate and explain that systems are composed of interacting parts with energy inputs and outputs as well as sequences of changes over time.

TIME: Fifth Six Weeks # PERIODS: 1 90-minute class
Benchmark:/Performance Indictor—TEKS or TAKS Objective:

TEKS 8.12 Science concepts. The student knows that cycles exist in Earth systems. The student is expected to:

8.12(A)  analyze and predict the sequence of events in the lunar and rock cycles.

Topics to Cover: Examine the phases of the moon as they effect phenomena on earth. (TEKS 8.12A)

    1. Eclipses
    1. solar –partial and total
    2. lunar
    3. umbra
    4. penumbra
    1. Tides
    1. spring
    2. neap
Notes: For PreAP, relate gravitational forces of the sun, moon earth in relation to the tides.
TIME: Fifth Six Weeks # PERIODS: 1 90-minute class
Benchmark:/Performance Indictor—TEKS or TAKS Objective:

TEKS 8.13 Science concepts. The student knows characteristics of the universe. The student is expected to:

8.13(B) explain the use of light years to describe distances in the universe.

Topics to Cover: Compare and contrast our solar system to the universe. (TEKS 8.13)
    1. Identify similarities between our solar system and the universe
    2. Compare methods of measurement in space. (TEKS 8.13A)
    1. Distances between the planets and the sun (km vs. AU)
    2. Distance/depth of the Milky Way
    3. AU (Astronomical Units) vs. LY (Light Years)
    1. PreAP: Calculate the distance in km for a LY.
Notes:
TIME: Fifth Six Weeks # PERIODS: 1 90-minute class
Benchmark:/Performance Indictor—TEKS or TAKS Objective:

TEKS 8.13 Science concepts. The student knows characteristics of the universe. The student is expected to:

8.13(A) describe characteristics of the universe such as stars and galaxies.

Topics to Cover: Sequence the life cycle of a star and analyze methods for star identification. (TEKS 8.13A)

    1. Sequence the stages in the life cycle of a star including our sun:
    1. Nebula, protostar, main sequence, red giant
    2. Mass effects: [low mass] white dwarf, black dwarf
    3. Mass effects: [high mass] supernova, neutron/pulsar stars
    4. Mass effects: [very high mass] supernova, black holes
    1. Analyze and use the Hertzsprung-Russell (HR) Diagram
    2. Identify groups of stars
    1. spiral
    2. elliptical
    3. spherical
    4. irregular
    5. cluster
Notes:
TIME: Fifth-Sixth Six Weeks # PERIODS: 9 90-minute classes
Benchmark:/Performance Indictor—TEKS or TAKS Objective:

TEKS 8.3 Scientific processes. The student uses critical thinking and scientific problem solving to make informed decisions. The student is expected to:

8.3(A) analyze, review, and critique scientific explanations, including hypotheses and theories, as to their strengths and weaknesses using scientific evidence and information;

8.3(D)  evaluate the impact of research on scientific thought, society, and the environment; and

8.3(E)  connect Grade 8 science concepts with the history of science and contributions of scientists.

TEKS 8.13 Science concepts. The student knows characteristics of the universe. The student is expected to:

8.13(C) research and describe historical scientific theories of the origin of the universe.

Topics to Cover: Research scientist and theories concerning the universe. (TEKS 8.13C)

1. Evaluate the theories on the origin of the universe (TEKS 8.3D/E)

    1. Ptolemy
    2. Galileo
    3. Copernicus
    4. Kepler- Brahe
    5. Einstein
    6. Hubble
    7. Hawkins

2. Evaluate the impact of major theories of the universe. (TEKS 8.3D/E)

    1. Big Bang Theory
    2. Geocentric vs. Heliocentric
    3. Nebular Hypothesis
Notes:
TIME: Sixth Six Weeks # PERIODS: 7 90-minute classes
Benchmark:/Performance Indictor—TEKS or TAKS Objective:

TEKS 8.4 Scientific processes. The student knows how to use a variety of tools and methods to conduct science inquiry. The student is expected to:

8.4(A)  collect, record, and analyze information using tools including beakers, petri dishes, meter sticks, graduated cylinders, weather instruments, hot plates, dissecting equipment, test tubes, safety goggles, spring scales, balances, microscopes, telescopes, thermometers, calculators, field equipment, computers, computer probes, water test kits, and timing devices; and

8.4(B)  extrapolate from collected information to make predictions.

TEKS 8.10 Science concepts. The student knows that complex interactions occur between matter and energy. The student is expected to:

8.10(A)  illustrate interactions between matter and energy including specific heat;

8.10(B) describe interactions among solar, weather, and ocean systems.

Topics to Cover: Collect weather data to observe energy exchange within the atmosphere. (TEKS 8.4B, 8.10 A/B)

  1. Heat
    1. Temperature
    2. Thermometers (°F, °C, & °K)
    3. formation of cyclonic systems
      1. hurricanes
      2. tornadoes
      3. thunderstorms
  1. Moisture
    1. relative and absolute humidity
    2. hygrometers & psychrometers (%)
    3. dew point
    4. clouds/fog
    5. precipitation (rain, sleet, glaze, snow, hail)
  1. Movement of air
    1. global wind patterns
    2. anemometer (mph, km/h, knots)
    3. land breeze/sea breeze
    4. air masses
      1. maritime polar
      2. maritime tropical
      3. continental polar
      4. continental tropical
    5. fronts (warm/cold interactions & energy exchange)
  1. Pressure
    1. air pressure
    2. barometers (in of Hg, cm of Hg, millibars)
      1. mercurial
      2. aneroid
    1. relate changes in air pressure to weather patterns
Notes:
TIME: Sixth Six Weeks # PERIODS: 7 90-minute classes
Benchmark:/Performance Indictor—TEKS or TAKS Objective:

TEKS 8.4 Scientific processes. The student knows how to use a variety of tools and methods to conduct science inquiry. The student is expected to:

8.4(A)  collect, record, and analyze information using tools including beakers, petri dishes, meter sticks, graduated cylinders, weather instruments, hot plates, dissecting equipment, test tubes, safety goggles, spring scales, balances, microscopes, telescopes, thermometers, calculators, field equipment, computers, computer probes, water test kits, and timing devices; and

8.4(B)   extrapolate from collected information to make predictions.

TEKS 8.10 Science concepts. The student knows that complex interactions occur between matter and energy. The student is expected to:

8.10(A)  illustrate interactions between matter and energy including specific heat;

8.10(B) describe interactions among solar, weather, and ocean systems.

Topics to Cover: Relate the role of oceans to climatic changes. (TEKS 8.10B)
    1. Analyze weather patterns and make predictions
    2. Locate major warm and cold ocean currents
    3. Explain the effect on the climate by warm and cold currents
    4. Examine the effects on weather patterns by global system changes; i.e., El Nino
Notes:
TIME: # PERIODS:
Benchmark:/Performance Indictor—TEKS or TAKS Objective:

 

Topics to Cover:
Notes: