Valley Civilization Daily Life
We know very little about this civilization, but
what we know is fascinating! Over 4,000 years ago, in the Indus Valley,
people built huge, planned cities, with straight streets, and brick
homes with private baths! Kids played with toys and women wore
How do we know this?
In 1922, archaeologists found something exciting! They found the remains
of an ancient city called Harappa. They found another city,
located 400 miles southwest of Harappa, called Mohenjo-Daro. Other
ancient cities from the same period, arranged in the same way, have been
found since. Collectively, this civilization is referred to as the Indus
Valley Civilization (sometimes, the Harappan civilization). This
civilization existed from about 3000-2,500 BCE to about 1500 BCE, which
means it existed at about the same time as the Egyptian and Sumerian
What was life like, over 4,000 years ago, in
Harappa and in Mohenjo-Daro, two busy cities of about 35,000 people
each? Would you have wanted to live in one of these flourishing ancient
cities? (I think they sound neat!) Let's see what you think!
Houses were one or two stories high, made of baked brick, with flat
roofs, and were just about identical. Each was built around a courtyard,
with windows overlooking the courtyard. The outside walls had no
windows. Each home had its own private drinking well and its own private
bathroom. Clay pipes led from the bathrooms to sewers located under the
streets. These sewers drained into nearly rivers and streams. This
was a very advanced civilization!
Men and women dressed in colorful robes. Women wore jewelry of
gold and precious stone, and even wore lipstick! Among the treasures
found was a statue of a women wearing a bracelet. (Bracelets with
similar designs are worn today in India.)
A beautiful small bronze statue of a dancer was found, which
tells us that they enjoyed dance and had great skill working with
metals. In the ancient city of Mohenjo-daro, scientists have found the
remains of a large central pool, with steps leading down at both ends.
This could have been a public swimming pool, or perhaps have been used
for religious ceremonies. Around this large central pool were smaller
rooms, that might have dressing rooms, and smaller pools that might have
been private baths.
Dinner might have been warm tasty wheat bread served with barley or
rice. It would appear they were very good farmers. They grew barley,
peas, melons, wheat, and dates. Farms raised cotton and kept herds of
sheep, pigs, zebus (a kind of cow), and water buffalo. Fish were caught
in the river with fish hooks! Each town had a large central storage
building for grain. Crops were grown, and the harvest stored
centrally, for all in the town to enjoy.
Toys: Some of
the toys found were small carts, whistles shaped like birds, and toy
monkeys which could slide down a string!
ancient civilization must have had marvelous craftsmen, skilled
in pottery, weaving, and metal working. The pottery that has been found
is of very high quality, with unusually beautiful designs. Several small
figures of animals, such as monkeys, have been found. These small
figures could be objects of art or toys. There are also small statues of
what they think are female gods. So far, scientists have found no large
statues. They have found bowls made of bronze and silver, and many beads
and ornaments. The metals used to make these things are not found in the
Indus Valley. So, either the people who lived in this ancient
civilization had to import all of these items from some other place, or
more probably, had to import the metals they used to make these
beautiful things from somewhere else.
The people used camels, oxen and elephants to travel
over land. They had carts with wooden wheels. They had ships, with one
mast, probably used to sail around the Arabian Sea. Seals with a
pictographic script, which has not as yet been deciphered, were found at
the Indus Valley sites. Similar seals were found in Mesopotamia,
which seems to indicate possible trade between these two civilizations.
The Riddle of the Indus:
What does it take to build a city with straight
streets and well designed sewers? It takes smart engineers and a lot of
planning! These well organized cities suggest a well organized
government and probably a well-developed social life.
What is amazing is that it appears the Harappan
cities did not develop slowly, which suggests that whoever built these
cities learned to do so in another place. As the Indus flooded,
cities were rebuilt on top of each other. Archaeologists have
discovered several different cities, one built over the other, each
built a little less skillfully. The most skillful was on bottom. It
would appear that builders grew less able or less interested in
perfection over time. Still, each city is a marvel, and each greatly
advanced for its time.
So far, scientists have found no wall carvings
or tomb paintings to tell us about their life. We do know they had a
written language, but only a few sentences, on pottery and amulets, have
been found. We donít know what it says. Scholars have quite a few
mysteries to solve about the ancient Indus civilization. For one thing,
the people who lived in these marvelous cities disappeared around 1500
BCE. Perhaps they ran out of wood to hold back flooding, or perhaps
their soil gave out and no longer would grow crops. No one knows what
happened these people, or where they went. Historians are very curious.
It will be interesting to see what archaeologists "dig up" next!
UPDATE ON THE INDUS VALLEY!
(Spring, 1998) Thanks
to modern technology and international rivalry, nearly 1,400 Indus sites
(towns!) have now been discovered. That is a very big civilization,
large enough to be called an empire, only there is no evidence that
these people were governed by emperors who lived in palaces or large
estates. Rather, the opposite has been discovered. Some homes are a bit
larger than others, but that might be due to a larger family unit.
What else have scientists discovered about this
fascinating culture? LOTS! Their towns were laid out in grids everywhere
(straight streets, well built homes!) These people were incredible
builders! Scientists have found what they think are giant reservoirs
for fresh water. They have also found that even the smallest house at
the edge of each town was linked to that town's central drainage system.
(Is it possible that they not only drained waste water out, but also had
a system to pump fresh water into their homes, similar to modern
plumbing? What a neat thought! Who were these people? Remember-these
systems were built over 3,500 years ago!)
Although scientists can not yet read the language,
they are beginning to believe these people had a common language! That's
incredible! As well, scientists have found artifacts at different sites
(towns) with the same or similar picture of a unicorn on them. India
Today suggested humorously that perhaps it was a logo - like Pepsi
and Coke, only this one was Unicorn!
What next? Scientists remain very curious about
these people, who lived about the same time in history as the ancient
Mesopotamians and the ancient Egyptians. Did these ancient civilizations
know each other in ancient times? My personal opinion is - yes! As
scientists continue to unravel the riddle of the Indus, we may find we
will have to rewrite history! Was it the ancient Mesopotamians who first
invented the sailboat and the wheel, or was it perhaps the people in the
Indus Valley? Where did these people come from, and where did they go?
It's a fascinating riddle.
To explore the ancient city of Harappa in pictures and articles,
Be a detective! See what you can find!
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